It was not only a historical moment of victimhood embodied in Hector Pietersen's lifeless body sprawled across Mbuyisa Makhubu' outstretched arms.
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The SSRC called for a three-day stayaway from work and a march to downtown Johannesburg to demand the release of all political detainees. There was no threat of violence to enforce compliance, a sign of black solidarity and an expression of the sentiment summed up in the saying "black man you are on your own".
August4 was pivotal in the construction of a black radical tradition and paradigm that informed social and political practice for black society in Soweto and in black townships across the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal PWV region or present day Gauteng. It signalled the urban black population's resolve to continue with protest despite the apartheid state's determination to put an end to it.
In the aftermath of August 4, the level of violence unleashed by the apartheid state grew tremendously. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that more people died on August 4 than on any other day during the nearly 18 months of unrest that was only halted on Black Wednesday. Not only did the campaign of August 4 stiffen the resolve of black society to continue with unrest. It also inspired a desire among hundreds of Soweto students to leave the country with the purpose of returning to engage the apartheid state's military machinery on an equal footing.
This was a cohort of recruits emerging from an intensely black radical experience that was bound to cause anxiety in the ANC. It was left to Jacob Zuma to de-school this generation of recruits of the black radical convictions that they carried across the borders. Back in SA the radicalism of BC continued to inspire a mass mobilisation for another 14 months.
Khotoso Seatlholo, succeeding Mashinini as president of the SSRC organised two campaigns of student marches to John Voster Square to demand the release of political detainees. Sign in Register.
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The death of organised black radical formations. The only other asserted advantages, passenger-luring design and crashworthiness, simply could not be supported by real-world data that did not yet exist. Thus, no new orders were received after the end of The original waivers had expired in March , which meant that for any new business won from solicitations or contracts after that date the buses had to be made compliant with Buy America rules. In seeking an extension of the waiver, NABI argued that it was financially unable to transfer manufacture of the CompoBus component from its facility in Hungary to its plant in the U.
To do so would have driven the cost of production, and therefore the price, even higher. Based on its inability to commercialize the technology at a price that the industry was willing to pay and in a manner compliant with federal law, NABI saw no future for CompoBus. Accordingly, it announced that it would lay off a third of its workforce in Kaposvar and cease production after it completed existing contracts.
Industry implications The death of CompoBus raises several important questions.
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And if so, will their price tags ever be justified by higher operational productivity? Can the U. The recent record is not great on two important points. First, most of the innovations so attractive to U.
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Should the U. Which raises a second point: With nearly all bus and railcar manufacturers either posting a loss, restructuring or both, they are in no shape to take on highly risky research and development without some assurances from the market, beyond lip service. Advanced technology does not solely pursue ridership or commercial goals. The point is that we may have decoupled the true benefits of public transportation usage from its fleet acquisition strategies. The name CompoBus could be shorthand for another serious question today: What is the true mission of public transportation?
To read part one in the series, click here. View comments or post a comment on this story. What to do with legacy systems — maintain, replace, migrate or integrate. Creating a reduced fare program is one of the suggestions by Chicago-based nonprofit Active Transportation Alliance. Ensures continued improvements aimed at providing customers with faster, smoother and safer public transit services.
Said he is fully committed to completing his time at the agency and will work with the board and staff to assure a seamless and smooth transition.
Only shifts commensurate with the scale of our existential crises have any prospect of averting them. Hopeless realism, tinkering at the edges of the problem, got us into this mess. It will not get us out. Public figures talk and act as if environmental change will be linear and gradual. Small perturbations can ramify wildly. Tipping points are likely to remain invisible until we have passed them.
We could see changes of state so abrupt and profound that no continuity can be safely assumed.
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Only one of the many life support systems on which we depend — soils, aquifers, rainfall, ice, the pattern of winds and currents, pollinators, biological abundance and diversity — need fail for everything to slide. For example, when Arctic sea ice melts beyond a certain point, the positive feedbacks this triggers such as darker water absorbing more heat, melting permafrost releasing methane, shifts in the polar vortex could render runaway climate breakdown unstoppable.
When the Younger Dryas period ended 11, years ago, temperatures rose 10 C within a decade. When the US joined the second world war in , it replaced a civilian economy with a military economy within months. The problem is political. A fascinating analysis by the social science professor Kevin MacKay contends that oligarchy has been a more fundamental cause of the collapse of civilisations than social complexity or energy demand. Control by oligarchs, he argues, thwarts rational decision-making, because the short-term interests of the elite are radically different to the long-term interests of society.
Economic elites, which benefit from social dysfunction, block the necessary solutions. The oligarchic control of wealth, politics, media and public discourse explains the comprehensive institutional failure now pushing us towards disaster. Think of Donald Trump and his cabinet of multi-millionaires ; the influence of the Koch brothers in funding rightwing organisations; the Murdoch empire and its massive contribution to climate science denial ; or the oil and motor companies whose lobbying prevents a faster shift to new technologies.